Ignorance, or Why You Should Research Whatever You’re Emulating Before You Start Coding

Apologies for the radio silence over the past couple of weeks. To summarize, I’ve run into a nasty problem that will require me to rewrite a significant portion of the 3D code in CorgiDS, and I’m trying to figure out how I want to do that.

When I started writing code for the DS GPU, I had no clue at all what I was doing. I had never worked with a 3D graphics library like OpenGL before, yet here I was attempting to create a software renderer in an emulator. After proverbially bashing my head against the keyboard over the course of several weeks, I finally started getting tangible results: getting polygons on the screen at all was cause for celebration. I gradually added more features such as textures, alpha blending, and lighting over time. Finally, after many, many weeks of work, CorgiDS almost meets my standards for a software renderer.


Take a look at this image from Final Fantasy IV in CorgiDS:


There are quite a few issues in this image, but let’s focus on one in particular: half of Cecil’s body on the left is entirely missing. If you look carefully, some polygons on the soldiers’ lower bodies are also missing.

What’s happening? I can’t conclusively say what the problem is, but I’ve managed to narrow it down to something going wrong with the clipping code. Clipping is how GPUs deal with polygons that extend beyond at least one of six planes of the viewing frustum: left, right, top, bottom, near, and far. The GPU “clips” the vertex outside of the frustum and creates two new vertices that lie directly on the plane.

The polygons are missing because one of their vertices is getting clipped on the far plane (the direction away from the camera), and the game is set to not render any polygons intersecting the far plane. I don’t exactly know why this is happening, but I have two thoughts:

  • A precision error causes vertices that should not be clipped to become clipped.
  • Vertices are being clipped multiple times.

I ruled out the first one, as there doesn’t seem to be anything wrong with my matrix multiplication code. Furthermore, the DS uses fixed-point arithmetic rather than floating-point, so a precision error is far less likely. That brings us to the second thought.

Because of my unfamiliarity with 3D graphics, I have used melonDS’s software renderer as a reference for creating my own. Out of a desire to learn things on my own and not outright copy someone else’s work, I have added parts bit-by-bit to my code. This organic process has led to CorgiDS’s software renderer being the messiest part of the codebase, founded upon faulty assumptions and unclear ideas. While it all remains solvable, there is one fundamental issue: CorgiDS does not re-use vertices in polygon strips.

The code for polygons so far looks like this:

Screen Shot 2017-11-26 at 1.13.16 PM

Note the “vert_index” variable, which points to the first vertex used. This code makes the assumption that vertices remain contiguous within RAM. While true for 90% of cases, this completely falls apart when polygon strips are involved. The DS GPU can allow two polygons to re-use the same vertices under special conditions, meaning that vertex lists no longer become contiguous. melonDS indicates that re-used vertices don’t get clipped again, but there’s other rules that I don’t quite understand…

Anyway, if this truly is the problem (and I don’t know what else could be), then a large portion of the renderer will need to be rewritten, a task that has little appeal to me. I might just ignore this problem entirely for the first release and focus my efforts elsewhere… not a whole lot of games are affected by this. Decisions, decisions…


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